- Free VPNs and Proxies
- Antivirus Solutions
- Password Managers
- Encrypted Storage
- Secure Email Clients
- Secure Messaging
- Ad Blockers
- Stealth Browsing
- Secure Search Engines
- File Deletion
- Intrusion Detection
- Windows Tools
- Anonymous Email Services
- Privacy Apps for Mobile
- Browser Extensions
- DNS Tools
- Miscellaneous Privacy Tools
- Final Thoughts
Many web surfers shy away from such tools because they usually cost money. To help everyone protect their privacy, we?ve compiled a comprehensive set of free privacy tools. No single person will be able to use all of them, but by making the right choices, you’ll be able to browse the Internet in peace knowing that your data is all yours.
So, whether you’re just checking email, replying to your friend’s status on Facebook or using a cloud storage service to put your files away, consider using at least some of the tools we’ve listed below and keep prying eyes away from your data.
Free VPNs and Proxies
VPNs and proxies act as an intermediary system that makes requests to web servers on your behalf. They both mask a computer?s true IP address, making it impossible for a web server to see where the data or HTTP request originated.
However, note that proxy servers only provide anonymity, but not security. A proxy server does nothing to encrypt data, so it would still be possible for an attacker or ISP to capture data in transit, and then read the information.
VPNs are much strong security solutions because they encrypt data, making it impossible to read. That said, proxy services are great for browsing the web anonymously and unblocking geo-restricted content (web pages, streaming video, etc.).
CyberGhost, unlike most other VPN providers, offers a free version of its VPN tunnel that can be used indefinitely, though it doesn?t have as many features as the paid version (if you’d rather enjoy the benefits of a paid VPN service, check out our ExpresssVPN review). This provider supports all the major operating systems and will help protect your data with strong encryption.
This tool is completely free, and contains a VPN client which beginners may find a little hard to handle. On the upside, this software is highly customizable and has many different features and configuration options once you learn how to use it.
Though not my favorite service, ProXPN undeniably offers value in the form of a free VPN tunnel. You don?t need to enter payment card information, though you?ll need to signup with an email address first. The only downside is that it throttles free users? VPN connections to 300 Kbps.
Spotflux supports the free version of its service with ads, and you can even download the client without needing to register for their service or enter payment card details. Unfortunately, the free version limits users to web connections and there is some bandwidth throttling.
This service doesn?t require you to use a software client, because it can interface with many operating systems default VPN software. It limits bandwidth to 200Kbps, but free is free. If you want a paid subscription, you can get one for $7.99 per month.
VPNBook offers dedicated VPN server connections for $7.49 a month, but it has a free service as well. Interestingly enough, the free service doesn?t set any data caps, though you?ll likely want to download OpenVPN for strong security and connections.
Your Freedom is a little outdated (just check out the website), but it deserves an honorable mention if only for reasons of seniority. If you only need a basic VPN service, this is a good alternative; bandwidth, however, is limited to 64Kbps.
VyprVPN is a high quality VPN service provider which offers a free version of their service. Though there isn?t any bandwidth throttling, it does impose a 500MB limit on free users. Chances are that after using VyprVPN for a while, you’ll find yourself signing up for a paid account: it’s that good.
UltraVPN is a VPN service that uses OpenVPN for its connections. It’s based in France and like most free VPN providers, the service imposes a 500Kbps data limit to help prevent free users from overburdening their servers.
Tor is well known for its anonymous network, but it also has a VPN service. Connections are made via OpenVPN, SSH and PPTP. Every free user only gets 1GB of data per month and it works on Windows, Mac, iPad and iPhone.
SecurityKiss offers paid subscriptions and free plans. This free service doesn?t use dedicated servers and free users only have access to servers in Germany, France, the UK, and the U.S.
Privoxy is a web proxy that is extremely customizable and is available on Windows, Linux and Mac OSX. It will help users increase anonymity, avoid targeted advertising, and unlock geo-restricted content. However, it can be tough for inexperienced users to configure Privoxy correctly.
OpenVPN is an open-source encryption protocol used by the majority of VPN service providers. It is fairly user-friendly, but without a VPN server with which to connect it?s worthless. Fortunately, you can build your very own VPN server to safeguard data on public networks, such as the Wi-Fi at a local coffee shop. OpenVPN supports almost every major operating system platform, too.
Hotspot Shield is a free VPN service for Windows, Mac, iOS, Android and even Kindle. Unlike other free VPNs, Hotspot Shield doesn?t throttle bandwidth. The free version is a watered down version of the paid subscription, but they have a healthy selection of servers based in the U.S., UK, Australia, Japan, Canada, Hong Kong, China, India and Germany.
Quickproxy isn?t bound by operating systems since it is a web-based tool. Simply plug in a desired URL into Quickproxy?s search bar, and you can access a website with a masked IP address. Not only will it block unwanted content ads, but Quickproxy will also hide your global location and IP address.
Proxy SwitchySharp is a browser extension that is only compatible with Google Chrome. This extension provides an interface that will help you manage, switch and connect to different proxy servers. Users can even choose which domains are accessed by specific proxy servers, which is great for unblocking geo-restricted content, hiding your identity and lowering your digital footprint.
FoxyProxy is very similar to SwitchySharp, but, as the name implies, it was designed for Firefox instead of Google Chrome. Remember, this proxy does nothing to encrypt sensitive data; however, it will hide your true IP address and prevent various types of tracking — like targeted online ads.
TunnelBear is a relatively new VPN service provider. In addition to paid subscription, TunnelBear offers a completely free version of their service, though it does have an inhibiting 500MB monthly data cap. Still, this VPN solution is a good fit for Windows, Max OSX, iOS, Android, Chrome and Opera users.
Protecting yourself against viruses and malware is the next step in preserving your privacy online; consider always using some kind of antivirus solution when browsing the Internet.
Bitdefender is a general purpose, antimalware program designed to remove and prevent malicious programs from invading a host. Though paid subscriptions offer higher levels of support and real-time protection, Bitdefender offers a free version for Windows and iOS users.
Malwarebytes is an extremely popular antimalware tool that offers real-time protection without eating up too much of a computer’s resources. This program is adept at identifying and removing the latest rootkits, keyloggers, spyware, Trojans, viruses, adware and other types of spyware.
This tool includes a firewall in addition to antivirus software. The software is adept at finding, quarantining and removing a wide range of threats including Trojans, spyware, adware, keyloogers, rootkits, viruses and more.
Lavasoft produces another great free alternative solution to stop malicious software dead in its tracks. One thing I really like about this free solution is that it can also stop unwanted ads from eating up your bandwidth, memory, CPU cycles and page load times.
Sophos is known for quality business-class antivirus solutions. They have scored extremely well with independent labs and offer a home version of their software free of charge. However, they have been known to be resource intensive, slowing down computers while protecting them.
Comodo is well known for creating a range of security products and offer free versions of all of them, though with limited functionality. Their free antivirus software includes a handy firewall and will help protect against a wide range of malware threats.
This handy tool comes with a lot of extra features that more experienced users will be happy to use. Do note that less tech-savvy users may have a hard time dealing with Qihoo 360, so they may want to go with another option on this list.
Kaspersky is a big name in the antivirus and security world. They do offer a free trial version of their software. However, there?s one big drawback: the free trial is only available for 30 days. Still, it?s better than nothing and you might like it well enough to buy it.
AVG is another popular antimalware solution, maybe even the most popular free antivirus solution available. Like Malwarebytes, AVG protects against viruses, Trojans, potentially unwanted programs, adware, spyware and much more. It is available for Mac OSX, Windows and Android.
Avast is an interesting antimalware solution because they promise not to divulge sensitive customer information to the authorities. Avast is touted as having as small an impact on system performance as possible. One handy extra feature is a free password manager to encrypt all your sensitive login credentials. Avast is available on iOS, Android, Mac OSX and Windows.
Panda is yet another free and lightweight antivirus solution with some unique features. In addition to malware removal, Panda comes with a file encryption tool, Wi-Fi protection, parental controls, a file deletion tool and other, more security-minded features. Panda is available on Windows, Mac OSX, Android and iOS.
Most people find it challenging to remember all their passwords and login credentials for all the websites they have signed up for. A password manager will not only remember passwords for you, they’ll also protect them from attacks by keyloggers and other dangers.
LastPass is a free browser plugin that stores passwords in a database encrypted with AES-256. The plugin lacks the ability to access your passwords because it relies on a master password; forgetting this master means that all your passwords are gone forever, so beware. LastPass is available for almost every browser under the sun, allowing anyone to use this handy tool.
KeePass is a popular and well-loved password manager that is very similar to LastPass. However, KeePass isn?t a browser extension; rather, it?s a standalone application. It isn?t the most user-friendly software, and it lacks the ability to sync databases among multiple devices. In order to sync a database, it?s recommended to use a cloud storage and syncing service like SugarSync.
Master Password is a truly innovative and interesting password manager, which operates very differently than KeePass and LastPass. Instead of storing login credentials in an encrypted database, Master Password uses a complex algorithm to create unique passwords. It?s available on Windows, Mac OSX, iOS, and Android.
DataVault is made by Ascendo, and it encrypts passwords using AES-128 bit encryption. I?m not sure why Ascendo wouldn?t use AES-256 since it?s stronger than AES-128, but DataVault still makes your passwords impossible to crack. It?s supported on Windows and Android for free, but Mac OSX and iOS users will have to pay.
There are many competent online backup services and cloud storage providers, but some of the free services (especially Dropbox and Google Drive) are inherently insecure. The following free services help create backups with stronger security and don?t cost a dime.
Boxcryptor creates an automatically encrypted folder within a computer?s file system. Any files placed inside the folder are automatically encrypted, making it good fit for Dropbox users, or any other similar service that uses a root directory for automatic file backups.
Viivo is an interesting file encryption utility because it functions by using two separate folders. One folder is local and stores all files in an unencrypted format. The second folder is an encrypted copy of the first folder. Users can then place the second folder in an automatic file syncing and backup folder like Dropbox uses.
iBackup is a secure cloud storage and backup provider. One of the great things about their service is that users can take advantage of a 5GB free plan that doesn?t have a time limit. This free service works with Windows, MacOSX, Android, iOS and Windows Phone.
Crashplan is a well-respected and trustworthy backup software provider. Interestingly enough, they provide their backup software for free, though you will have to use personal storage like a NAS device or external HDD. If you wish to store backups on Crashplan?s servers in the cloud, a subscription is necessary.
nCrypted Cloud helps secure cloud storage synchronization folders by encrypting data before it is sent to the storage servers. However, this utility doesn?t perform automatic encryption. Instead, a user will need to manually click on files to encrypt and decrypt them.
EncFSMP is very similar to BoxCryptor. It allows an individual to create a folder within their filesystem that automatically encrypts any data stored there. As a downside, it’s only available on Windows and Mac OSX.
Cryptonite uses the EncFSMP open source framework to essentially do the same thing as nCrypted Cloud. It makes a folder on Android devices where users can store their Dropbox and Google Drive automatic sync directories to automatically encrypt data before sending it to the storage servers.
AxCrypt is a Windows-only utility will help users encrypt and compress individual files manually. It’s a bit tricky to use, but offers excellent security for those willing to learn the ropes.
Diskcryptor is only available on Windows and it has the power to encrypt an entire hard drive, volume, or just a portion of a file system. This flexible utility encrypts data using AES-256, Twofish, Serpent or a hybrid of these encryption protocols for increased security.
FileVault 2 is the Mac equivalent to Diskcryptor, but it uses different encryption technologies. AES-128/XTS is the only encryption option, and it?s only available on OSX Lion and later.
Bitlocker is a Windows-only utility that is very similar to Diskcryptor. However, it was designed by Microsoft and is installed by default on various versions of the Windows operating system. It has the ability to encrypt an entire HDD or only subsets of the files system volume.
This utility is really the newest version of TrueCrypt. TrueCrypt is no longer supported, but Veracrypt will help encrypt folders, volumes, and drives with strong security on Windows, Mac OSX, iOS, Linux and Android. Veracrypt can also be used to help secure cloud storage services with poor security, such as Dropbox.
Secure Email Clients
Email has become part of most people?s daily lives, but is it secure? Edward Snowden blew the whistle on the NSA?s domestic wiretapping system called PRISM, whereby the NSA coerced Google (among other domestic firms) into giving over private customer data — including emails. To avoid such a massive invasion of privacy, encrypting emails is a must.
This useful browser extension helps secure web-based email clients like Gmail. With MailVelope, users can create their own public encryption keys and encrypt emails using PGP. Unfortunately, this tool is only available for Firefox and Google Chrome.
The GNU project was created to protect free, open-source software. This tool encrypts emails using PGP keys like MailVelope, but it is available on more operating systems. GNU Privacy Guard is supported on Windows, Mac OSX and Linux.
Thunderbird is an incredibly simple email client. This open source email program contains advanced features to protect against online tracking and phishing. It?s supported on Linux, Mac OSX and Windows.
EnigMail is another useful browser extension that protects emails with OpenPGP encryption. Emails encrypted with EnigMail cannot be read unless the receiver has the decryption key, but it?s only available for Firefox.
Most Apple users browse the Internet with Safari, so a few of the previous email encryption programs aren?t applicable to the vast majority of Mac users. Fortunately, GPGTools is a Mac-based alternative that encrypts emails with a pre-installed package named S/MIME.
Whenever you send a text message using WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger or a standard SMS messages, how do you know they?re secure? The ugly truth is that they are not and could be picked up by an eavesdropper. Using a secure message app will help prevent your messages from being intercepted and read.
The creators of the popular anonymity network named Tor have also created a secure messaging app. TorChat uses P2P technology to deliver instant messages, and helps hide your identity and protect anonymity just like the Tor network. You can even run this tool from a thumb drive, but only from Windows and Linux systems.
One of the largest problems with messaging applications is that they archive past conversations. If you send a sensitive message, chances are it?s not a good idea to store the message on a service provider?s server. Burn Note will destroy a message within a set period of time after the recipient reads the message.
CryptoCat is a wonderful tool because it encrypts messages on the local device before ever sending it to the intended destination. In addition to two-way chats and group chats, it can encrypt files and photos sent in the messaging system. This versatile encryption tool is available on almost every OS but Windows.
Pidgin also encrypts instant messaging applications like Yahoo, MSN, AIM, and a few other similar chat services. You can use it on Windows, Linux and Mac OSX, as well as most mobiles operating systems.
Digital marketing is more advanced than every before and advertising firms can collect a lot of information about you with full approval of legislators. To halt their efforts to make a buck, not to mention irritate you with popups, use the following free tools.
Privacy Badger thwarts individual web page components that attempt to track your online activities. It isn?t really an ad blocker per se, but since it blocks certain tracking features, Privacy Badger can preemptively block ads and malware. It can even stop fingerprinting attempts to track web browser activities.
uBlock is an ad blocking extension for Firefox, Google Chrome and Safari. By blocking ads, it can also prevent ad tracking software from collecting information on victims of targeted advertisements.
Nixory isn?t a true ad blocker, but it does block web page elements that store information about web surfers? activities. It?s really a tool better used to combat tracking, malware and spyware. You can use it with Firefox, Google Chrome and Internet Explorer.
Adblock Plus has built quite a reputation for itself and is extremely popular as a result. It will work on any OS — mobile or desktop — under the sun and not only blocks ads but also actively hunts down malware. Do note, however, that AdBlock Plus now is part of the “acceptable ads” program, making it less effective.
Ghostery is available for use with Opera, Safari, Google Chrome and Firefox. It is a browser extension and helps users customize which tracking features are enabled or disabled. Though not as popular as Adblock Plus, it does a great job of stopping ads from consuming bandwidth, memory and CPU cycles.
It?s no one else?s business what you do online, and there are a lot of third parties (hackers, ISPs, Google, governmental agencies, etc.) that try to look over your shoulder. The following tools will help hide the origin of data and with it the user?s identity.
This utility was created by the good folks who created the Tor network and Tor browser. It?s actually an extremely small and lightweight bootable OS that can be run from small memory cards (flash drive, SD card, etc.). Tails has an emphasis on security and encryption, so all of your messages, conversations, instant messages, and files are encrypted before they leave the local machine. And since Tails is a bootable OS, no files are stored locally, preventing data records and cookies from disrupting your online experience.
Despite it’s strange name, Orbot is very useful for protecting anonymity. It is actually the Android implementation of the Tor anonymity network and works much the same way, except that it is geared toward a mobile experience.
I2P works in the same manner as Tor. By sending data through a network of relay servers, the source of a web request is hidden from prying eyes. It?s available on all the major operating systems including Windows, Linux, Android and Mac OSX.
Peerblock helps to preemptively thwart connections from known bad hosts to nip malware problems in the bud. This tool is a favorite of P2P and Bittorrent downloaders to identify RIAA and copyright enforcement IP addresses. It works by maintaining a database of known dangerous IP addresses, and Peerblock can even prevent spyware and ads from making connections with a host computer.
Tor has gained an international reputation for being one of the best tools to protect your privacy (despite past FBI infiltration). This network works by sending data to various relay servers in the network to obfuscate the original source of traffic. To use Tor, all you need to do is download their browser extension. And the best part is that Tor isn?t platform dependent.
Tor, the popular anonymity network, has even created their own web browser. When visiting websites with the special browser, all queries are first automatically routed through the nearest relay server. The browser is also platform independent, and users can even run the browser from a flash drive.
Secure Search Engines
If you thought Google was the only search engine, think again. There are numerous search engines, and some of them are designed specifically to protect your privacy and anonymity.
StartPage is a wonderful tool to have in your arsenal, because it strips away any information that can be used to identify your computer before sending a query to Google. It won?t log personal information, IP addresses or track online activities. In addition, StartPage can be set as the default search page in Chrome.
DuckDuckGo is its own search engine, unlike StartPage, which merely submits queries to Google like a proxy server. This useful search engine is free of tracking cookies and other invasions of privacy, helping your searches stay hidden.
Ixquick was made by the same developers as StartPage, and it?s pretty similar, except that it queries several different search engines instead of only querying Google.
Even if a user deletes a file, special software and tools can reverse engineer the past order of individual bits, allowing an attacker or thief to recover data. If you want to be absolutely sure a file is deleted for good, use one of the following tools.
Darik?s Boot and Nuke is a bootable program, so it?s best to install it on a flash drive or DVD. It?s a good idea to use this utility before tossing and old computer or hard drive in the trash or before selling an old computer. Because it?s a bootable program, it is also operating system independent.
Unlike Darik?s Boot and Nuke, Eraser isn?t bootable, and it?s more appropriate for permanently deleting files (and their footprints) within your operating system. It works by writing patterns of 1?s, 0?s, and random values on the portion of an HDD where the deleted file was stored.
These programs will raise a red flag whenever a hacker or malicious program attacks your device.
Snort, despite its strange name, is a useful open source network tool. It will analayze traffic that flows through a specific network interface and can both detect and mitigate recognized attacks. It is available on Windows and Linux.
OSSEC, like Snort, isn?t particularly user-friendly, but is undeniably useful for detecting intrusions, keeping logs and preventing malware attacks. This free tool can be run on the Windows, Mac OSX and Linux platforms.
Windows is the most-used operating systems in the world; here are a few tools that are tailored specifically toward this ubiquitous operating system.
Windows 10 is notorious for collecting volumes of sensitive user information by default. Telemetry, location information, personal browsing habits and other types of data are all collected and sent back to a Microsoft database. But this tool will help block all of those intrusive and annoying data collection mechanisms.
W10 Privacy is similar, yet different, to Spybot Anti-Beacon. This tool basically acts as a control panel, helping users configure intrusive settings buried deep within the bowels of the Windows 10 operating system.
This program is very similar to W10 Privacy, except OO ShutUp10 doesn?t need to first be installed; instead, it can be loaded into memory and run from a .exe file. It too aggregates a lot of hidden settings into one central and easy to configure control panel.
This program also helps mitigate annoying Windows 10 data collection schemes (noticing a pattern here?).
Tinywall, as the name implies, is a small firewall application that helps Windows users take control over Windows Firewall. And it?s so easy to use that even novice users won?t have a problem.
Anonymous Email Services
Sometimes you want to send an email anonymously to avoid tracking. Use one of the following free tools.
This useful tool helps users create bogus email addresses to send emails from, which will remain untraceable. Though it may seem as a tool mainly meant for criminals, it can also useful to whistleblowers or anyone else that wants to send email yet remain unknown.
This encrypted email service is based out of Switzerland and they are secure and open source. However, in order to send and receive encrypted emails, your correspondent needs to use the tool as well.
This free tool doesn?t even require registration, and it helps users by generating face email addresses. It?s a great tool when a website requires email subscription before proceeding.
Privacy Apps for Mobile
Mobile devices need security too, so be sure to take advantage of the following applications to boost your security and privacy while on the go.
Signal is a wonderful tool to help you encrypt communications like voice, IM?s and data files. You can even use keys, fingerprints and authentication methods to validate the recipient of the messages.
Just about every application tries to take more permissions than it really needs, which has created some truly frightening security holes. But LBE Privacy Guard will help you more easily control what functions and permissions individual apps have access to. This program is only available for Android.
Web browsers are particularly vulnerable to attacks and hackers know it. Use the following tools to help lock down your web browser and prevent being the victim of something unpleasant.
NoScript is only available on Firefox and it exists to stop plugins from running scripts unless you trust the site. A lot of attacks are carried out by running malicious scripts in a user?s browser, but this tool includes a whitelist of trusted sites and can help block malicious scripts.
ScriptSafe is very similar to NoScript in the sense that it exists to block and prevent malicious scripts from running in your browser. Apart from being separate extensions, the largest difference is that this tool is available for Chrome.
This tool is only available for Google Chrome, and it helps scan your browser to make sure your privacy is protected. In addition, it will autmatically scan your computer for malicious software and wipe your browsing history whenever you exit your browser.
Disconnect started as a well-loved anti-malware, anti-tracking, and anti-advertising extension, but has since grown into a full-fledged VPN service. However, the free version doesn?t include the VPN tunnel. The good news is that it supports a wealth of operating systems and browsers including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera, iOS and Android.
This tool is available on Chrome, Firefox, Firefox for Android and Opera. Basically, this utility will ensure that websites that have the capability to run HTTPS don?t default to HTTP, which happens more than you?d think.
DNS translates domain names (like www.google.com) into IP addresses. You use this protocol every day, but it has some weaknesses. The following tools will help increase DNS security.
OpenDNS is more secure than the standard DNS you likely use from your ISP because it adds a mechanism to protect against phishing and filtering. However, this tool isn?t open source, though as a protocol it is platform independent.
This is simply a DNS service that anyone can use for free. Instead of setting your DNS servers to that of your ISP, set it to DNS.WATCH. They ensure they won?t keep logs, watch user activity or block websites.
Google Public DNS may or may not be more secure than your current DNS server. But it?s free to use and can unlock websites in specific situations where your ISP has blocked them at the DNS level. To see if you have access to their service, just ping 184.108.40.206.
Miscellaneous Privacy Tools
There isn?t an exact category for every tool. Use the following miscellaneous programs to help bolster your security and privacy.
Privacy checkup is a Facebook guide to security. If you haven?t seen it yet, you have the option to take a tour which acts as a sort of tutorial. It?s the very first thing you want to do to secure your Facebook page and you should want to secure it.
CCleaner is a powerful and popular optimizer for the Windows operating system. In addition to removing sluggish processes that bog down your computer, it can also correct registry problems and even clean browser cookies.
I think this is a really cool tool, because this tool encrypts your keyboard. That makes it a perfect tool to prevent hackers with keyloggers to record or see your keystrokes.
Evernote Encryption, as the name implies, will help you keep notes encrypted. However, it only encrypts the actual content; that is, the metadata and title won?t be secured.
Wireshark is traditionally a packet sniffer used by white hat and black hat hackers alike. It can record and see every bit and packet flowing across a network interface and help identify malicious traffic. Be warned, however, that it?s not really aimed at novices.
As the name implies, this tool is only available on Windows. It will help clean up bad or unwanted processes that slow down your computer and it will even delete traces of your activity and usage habits.
This handy little tool is operating system independent and it will help comb through your web browser to look for vulnerabilities. It tests to see how well your browser can block targeted online advertising and tracking (as well as other types of exploits) and then plugs up any holes it finds.
This isn?t a tool so much as it is a website. By visiting the website, you?ll be able to see how well your browser can withstand tracking activities. If the website finds that your browser isn?t resistant to tracking, then it will redirect you to a page that will help you disable tracking appropriately.
These days, websites can track your individual web browser by its degree of uniqueness, measured by all of your settings, configurations, add ons, operating system and so forth. Random Agent Spoofer will combat tracking and browser fingerprinting to ensure you stay safe online.
Using a cocktail of thee 99 free privacy tools above should keep you safe from most threats to your Internet safety and keep ISPs and government agencies from finding out what you’re up to.
If you have any questions regarding Internet privacy, feel free to let us know in the comments below. Thank you for reading.