If you’ve migrated from one web host to another, you’ve had to update your DNS records. While the process itself is painless, many people may not stop to consider what DNS records are, besides accepting that tech support says they need changing.
We’ve assembled a quick guide to remedy that and let you know not just what DNS record are, but also what role they serve on your website. If you want to know more on web hosting, make sure to check out our guide on the best web hosting providers, many of which will help you through any DNS changes.
What Is DNS?
DNS stands for Domain Name System and is used to point an incoming domain towards the IP address of the server. So, when you enter “cloudwards.net,” the DNS records fetch the IP address of our server and serve you the site.
This allows you to change web hosts without changing your domain name. Each website has a specific IP address, and the DNS records pair that IP address to the domain so users don’t need to remember the numeric line.
DNS records hold information about every single website on the internet. There’s no way around it, unlike some other areas of web hosting. While you may never update yours, they still exist regardless.
Migration is an integral part of DNS records. Updating the DNS records and pointing your domain to a new nameserver is all that a web host requires for transfer, minus slight propagation time. Now that I’ve spewed some tech jargon, you may be wondering what a nameserver is.
What Is a Nameserver?
A nameserver is a server inside a data center with DNS software installed on it, designed to manage the records of all domains hosted by the company. nameserver and DNS server are often interchanged terms but mean the same thing, so don’t get too confused if your provider uses different terminology.
A host installs DNS software on each server as a means to transfer the data from the DNS records. Basically, the server is like any other in the data center, but the software installed on it is what makes it a “nameserver.”
Each web host has a set of nameservers purpose-built for routing data through the center. Two servers may handle domains with shared plans, and another route WordPress traffic, for example.
A nameserver is like the mailroom of a data center. All incoming information arrives there before being routed to its intended destination. In the same way, the DNS records serve as an address book to know where the mail (data) needs to go.
DNS, Nameservers and Your Website
Tying the two together is what allows your website to get online. A typical stream would start by you purchasing a domain name from a registrar such as GoDaddy (read our GoDaddy review for more on this service). Once you own that domain, your web host must store its information within the DNS records to serve it up when the domain is entered.
This is a relatively straightforward process. All you need to do is specify which nameserver your domain should point to. A user enters your domain name which triggers the DNS records to look up the IP address and then sends data from the server back to them.
You can find DNS settings within the control panel of your domain registrar. Most web hosts will give you their nameserver addresses when you sign up, but a quick call to support can clear up any confusion if you can’t find it.
Nearly all domain registrars require a primary and alternate nameserver in the event one goes offline. For example, shared plans at A2 have the nameservers “ns1.a2hosting.com” and “ns2.a2hosting.com” (read our A2 review). Each web host organizes this a little differently, so make sure you consult your provider.
Types of DNS Records
There are a few different types of DNS records you can modify at your domain registrar. Typically, all you need to do is update the nameserver, but knowing the different types of records can help if you need to change something down the line.
An A record is what points your domain to an IP address. It stands for address record and is the purest form of DNS. It allows users to type in an easily recognizable domain and still get pointed to the IP address.
CNAME, or canonical name, redirects one domain to another, allowing you to only update one A record each time you make a change. For example, the CNAME record allows “cloudwards.net” to fetch up “www.cloudwards.net” with the “www” in front.
A mail exchanger entry directs email to a different server despite being a subdomain. Essentially, it specifies how email should be routed when sent to an address at your domain.
This is a bit of a catch-all record, not intended to direct any traffic, but instead to provide information to external sources. It serves several different purposes depending on your needs.
This record is the same as an A record, but allows you to point a domain to an IPv6 address instead of an IPv4 one.
Don’t worry if all of this seems overwhelming. Routing data is complex, and these base descriptions barely scratch the surface. In most cases, you’ll never need to touch these records and, if you do, most support can handle it for you.
Web hosting is very intricate. Automating computers to route and reroute millions of requests within fractions of a second requires some serious engineering. Even so, we hope that this broad look at DNS records helped clear some confusion.
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Are you more confident with DNS records? Let us know in the comments below and, as always, thanks for reading.